Career Orientation

Holland’s Typology

Holland's typology

The holland codes

Holland’s typology posits that it is beneficial to portray people according to their similarity to six personality types (realistic, investigative, artistic, social, entrepreneurial, and conventional). Each type is assumed to flourish in a work environment having the same label. More specifically, job satisfaction, stability of career path, and achievement are dependent on the congruence between person and job environment. Conversely, incongruence (i.e., person and job are mismatched) leads to dissatisfaction, instability of career path, and low performance.

Holland's typology

Stability, Change, and Congruence

Studies of career aspirations, interests, and personality are of significant importance as they provide useful explanations of the continuity observed in careers. However, they are incomplete, as they focus on personal characteristics and neglect environmental characteristics. The application of the typology populations implies how people of different ages comprehend and interact with their environments. Such research suggests that congruence between where people live or work and their personality type leads to more satisfaction and stability. In addition, interests and job congruency were positively correlated with job satisfaction. Such research suggests that people consciously choose occupational options in terms of potential person-job interactions and that their thoughts concerning such potential interactions follow Holland’s typology.

Social types

Example: social types, like to help people (i.e. teaching, counseling, nursing, or giving information; as opposed to realistic types who enjoy using machines, tools, or animals to achieve their goal). Social types tend to have good skills at teaching, counseling, nursing, or giving information. Their values include: social service, fairness and understanding. They feel rewarded in occupations that allow them to display their empathic and humanistic nature. They tend to see themselves as helpful, friendly, trustworthy, and empathic. Others see them as helpful, agreeable, out-going, and patient.


The six scales of The Self-Directed Search (SDS) (Holland, 1994) have, for a long while, been the primary tool for estimating a person’s congruency between different types of occupations. The SDS generates a three letter code, each which represents a personality type, the SDS code can then matched with occupation profiles from the National Occupations Classification system (NOC), each which potentially represents a potentially satisfying employment.

Until next week ….. Stay tuned!

           Contact Us